There are potential conflicting ethical issues, potential violations, and possible frauds in the process of writing and publishing academic papers. As a result, both researchers and journals must have a clear stance and validation of ethical issues at the time of publication. General journals have established policies and procedures related to ethical issues. Researchers must understand the journal’s policies regarding ethical issues and write and submit papers appropriately . Journal editors and publishers should review all potential ethical issues before publication. Today we will look at the major ethical issues related to academic research and publishing and how to prevent them.
Research authenticity ( problems such as cheating, manipulation, plagiarism, duplication , etc. )
One of the most ethical problems of the researchers is related to the truth of research, and the most common problem related to this is cheating . Any suggestions, progress, peer review and manipulation at the time of publication of the research results, false or plagiarism, etc. should be eliminated. The journal first reviews potential fraudulent activities such as data manipulation, falsification, plagiarism, image manipulation, unethical research, and authorship abuse. If the editor finds any irregularities, the editor will consult with the relevant authorities according to the internal regulations. Suspicious cheating will be handled according to the relevant regulations. This should be done as quickly as possible. Any fraud involving concrete evidence submitted by anonymous comments or insider allegations must also be investigated immediately.
Manipulation, False and Image Manipulation
When you manipulate the image data, the results will also be manipulated, and the journal will be able to identify it well. Of course, there are cases where image editing is allowed. For example, if you want to enlarge a specific part to check the characteristics of the artwork. Journals should provide guidelines for image editing.
The journal should provide definitions and guidelines for plagiarism . In principle, plagiarism is considered to be copyright theft or improper use, or to write the results of other researchers without quotation. Editors should notify the “Editorial Guidelines” on how to verify whether a contributed article is plagiarized, and what should be done to prevent the researcher from unwittingly plagiarizing.
The journal should establish procedures for preventing duplicate publications. In other words, duplicate publications are not allowed, and you must provide guidelines, such as the fact that published publications (figures, figures, images, etc.) must be disclosed. You must also obtain a signature from the author to confirm that the article is original and not published in another journal and that the article is final (the journal will use the relevant forms such as the Copyright Transfer Agreement, the Exclusive License Agreement, or the Open Access Agreement). can)
Issues of human rights, privacy, and confidentiality
Researchers should have ethical responsibility for the research subjects or participants when conducting research and writing papers . The journal should also provide guidelines for these areas and ask the researcher to comply. All participants should not be subjected to any form of coercion or exploitation and should not be harmed by the research process or the results. Also, you should avoid exposure of your personal information. Individuals and photographs of individual participants, especially those in the biomedical field, are subject to prior consent from the participant. You must get written consent to the possibility of exposure, such as when participants are exposed to photos, videos, voice recordings, etc.
The problem of authorship
At the time of submitting a thesis, you must accurately state all the authors and roles involved in the thesis. In general, the criteria and role of the author are determined in accordance with the standards of the International Medical Scientific Editorial Board (ICMJE). The journal should have clear criteria for authorship and incorporate them into the announcement. The standards of authorship as defined by the International Medical and Scientific Editorial Board include all of the following four conditions: The criteria for domestic universities and institutes are similar.
First, make substantive contributions to the establishment and composition of a particular work, or to acquire, analyze and translate data necessary for research. Second, drafting or significantly revising important content. Third, approve the final paper to be published. Fourthly, I agree that I am responsible for all aspects of my thesis because I have appropriately reviewed and solved all problems related to accuracy and integration of the thesis.
Other conflicts of interest , defamation issues
Editors, thesis authors, and peer reviewers are required to disclose this in advance when they have an interest in the submission and evaluation of the thesis. This includes monetary, personal, political or religious interests. Editors should check whether there is any defamation or slander in the submitted papers and peer review reports. The object of defamation or slander is not only individual but also corporation or group. If it is, it must be deleted before publication.
We have reviewed the major ethical issues that can be raised in the process of writing, evaluating and publishing research papers. The journal should provide clear guidelines on the definition, scope, and impact of these issues, and researchers should thoroughly reflect the journal’s procedures and regulations based on ethical awareness to eliminate the problem.